Latest Mac Os Operating System


It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac computers. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Windows NT. MacOS succeeded the classic Mac OS, a Macintosh operating system with nine releases from 1984 to 1999. The version of Mac OS X 10.6.0 raised the optimization to Intel-based processors further, the new operating system is no longer available for PowerPC Macintosh or pure 32-bit intel processors. In return the user receives a pure 64-bit operating system optimized for performance on multiple processors.

  1. Latest Mac Os Operating System 2018
  2. Latest Mac Os Operating System 2020
  3. Latest Mac Os Operating System 2019

Which Mac operating system is the best is a topic of numerous debates among Apple fans.

Mac os operating system download

Since the mission of this blog is to refute myths and legends around Macs, it’s time for me to provide my 2 cents about the issue on hand. While everything below is just my opinion, as a long-time Mac user and veteran software engineer, I hope my opinion worth something.

The best Mac OS version is the one that your Mac is eligible to upgrade to. In 2021 it is macOS Big Sur. However, for users that need to run 32-bit apps on Mac, the best macOS is Mojave. Also, older Macs would benefit if upgraded at least to macOS Sierra for which Apple still releases security patches.

How to Tell Which macOS You Are Running

To find out which macOS is currently running on your Mac, follow these steps:

  1. Click on Apple logo in the top left corner of the menubar
  2. In the dropdown click on the first item: About This Mac
  3. The first line in the Overview tab is the name of the current OS.

What Version of OS Can My Mac Run?

Not all Macs can be upgraded to the latest OS version. For instance, old Macs powered by PowerPC CPUs cannot run OS intended for Intel-based computers. Also, some versions have hardware limitations.

For instance, Mojave cannot be installed on MacBook Pro earlier than Mid 2012 model.

Check below to know exactly what version of OS your Mac can run.

Which OS is Best for my Mac

Anytime someone asks me which OS is best for them I always suggested going with the latest. Things have changed recently, however.

Latest Mac Os Operating System 2018

Should I Upgrade to macOS Catalina or Big Sur?

While personally I like macOS Big Sur and have it installed on my MacBook Pro, it comes with serious breaking changes.

The first issue is compatibility.

Big Sur is a transition OS which is designed to help Apple to move from Intel processors to their own chips on ARM.

After I installed Big Sur on my MacBook Pro mid 2020 (pre-Silicon), most of my apps, including Microsoft Office, were working as expected.

However, my VMWare Fusion 11 does not start anymore, so I have to purchase a new license if I want to keep using it (or roll back to Catalina). Luckily, I took a full backup before the upgrade.

The second breaking issue is the lack of 32-bit app support.

macOS Catalina and Big Sur can only run 64-bit apps.

If you wondering whether you should upgrade to macOS Catalina or Big Sur, first verify that you don’t have any 32-bit apps. But first, take a back up, so you can go back in case something breaks after the upgrade.

For instance, I had to remove uTorrent after upgrade. And I didn’t know that uTorrent is 32-bit!

How to Know If App is 32-bit or 64-bit

To find out whether the app on your Mac is 32-bit or 64-bit follow these steps:

  1. Click on Apple logo in the top left corner of the Mac screen
  2. Click on About This Mac option
  3. Click on System Report button in Overview tab (first one)
  4. Scroll down to Software -> Applications
  5. Find the app and check Kind

Which macOS Should I Use

If you have an older Mac which is not eligible to upgrade with some latest software or hardware, I’d suggest upgrading at least to Sierra (or better High Sierra) for the following reasons:

  • Sierra is still supported by Apple, and it gets security updates
  • APFS file system is available
  • It supports Siri
  • Significant security improvements

The most important point when choosing the best OS is the ability to get security updates. While Apple generally does not announce the OS end of life dates, it is possible to know when they stop releasing security updates from this page.

For instance, according to the page, the last security update for OS X Yosemite was released on September 12, 2017. The last update for OS X El Capitan was in July 2018, and Carnegie Mellon University confirmed that El Capitan’s end of life date was August 2018.

Snow Leopard Myth

I know that some users on forums believe that the best OS version for Macs was Snow Leopard. But that is a myth. And I know how such myths get created.

Once I worked in the company, which was selling a 20-year old product. And customers were still using and didn’t want to switch to new versions, because the old one was rock solid.

I then talked to the engineer who worked on the project, and he revealed that the product was a total disaster when it was first deployed. Engineers had to work on-site for almost a year in order to fix all bugs.

After five or so years of polishing the product, it becomes virtually bug-free, and nobody now remembers how bad it was when it was first rolled out. A similar thing happened Snow Leopard, and it was recognized as best mac os version after some time.

How to Update to the Latest Version

There are two ways to update to the latest OS version on Mac:

  • From the Software Update section in System Preferences
  • Use a download link

Using Software Update

This is by far the best option, but it only available if you have Yosemite, or later OS installed already. If you enabled automatic updates, then Mac will inform you that the next macOS is available.

Just open System Preferences, go to Software Update and click on the Upgrade Now button.

This method is also best if wondering how to check if you have the latest version of OS installed on your Mac. Only the version compatible with your hardware will appear here.

For instance, my the latest version for Mac Mini 2012 is Mojave, I can’t install anything newer than that.

If you are having problems with updates or having issues post-upgrade check my post about troubleshooting macOS.

Using download links

For older systems or in case you need to downgrade, you have to download a standalone installer in DMG format. DMG stands for disk image, similar to ISO, just different formats.

After downloading the installer, just double click on it and follow instructions. Again, do not forget to take a backup before the upgrade.

Mac OS Comparisons: Requirements, Features, Compatibility, Download Links

Following is a high-level description of all Mac operating systems as early as Mountain Lion.

You can refer to those descriptions when deciding which operating system is best for your iMac, Mac Pro, Mac mini, or MacBook.

With each OS description, I included a list of Macs supported. However, you can use Mac OS compatibility checker for more detailed information.

macOS 11 Big Sur

macOS v11 (codename Big Sur) is the latest version of the operating system for Apple computers.

Release date: October 13, 2020

Hardware Requirements: RAM requirement 4GB. Big Sur is the first OS to support new Macs using ARM technology (in the future).


  • The biggest design refresh since macOS X.
  • Support for new ARM processors.
  • Safar improved performance and power consumption.
  • Time Machine supports backup to APFS volumes.
  • One-click translation for 7 languages.
  • Redesigned maps

Software Compatibility Issues

Only 64-bit apps are allowed to run on Big Sur.

How to install

There are two ways to install Big Sur: enable automatic updates in System Preferences or download by using the following link.

Or check my post with tips on installing macOS on unsupported devices.

List of Apple computers compatible with macOS Big Sur

  • MacBook (2015 and later)
  • MacBook Air (2013 and later)
  • MacBook Pro (2013 and later)
  • Mac mini (2014 and later)
  • iMac models (2014 and later)
  • iMac Pro (2017 and later)
  • Mac Pro (2013 and later)

macOS 10.15 Catalina

Release date: October 7, 2019

Hardware Requirements: RAM requirement increased from 2GB to 4GB.


  • Introduced Sidecar, which allows for Macs to use an iPad as an external display.
  • iTunes was replaced by separate apps: Music, Podcasts, and TV.
  • Find My Mac and Find My Friends have merged into one app.

Software Compatibility Issues

macOS Catalina is the first Mac operating system that does not support 32-bit applications. Only 64-bit apps are allowed to run on Catalina.

How to install

There are two ways to install Catalina: enable automatic updates in System Preferences or download by using the following link.

List of Apple computers compatible with macOS Catalina

  • MacBook (Early 2015 or later)
  • MacBook Air (Mid 2012 or later)
  • MacBook Pro (Mid 2012 or later)
  • Mac mini (Late 2012 or later)
  • iMac models (Late 2012 or later)
  • iMac Pro (All models)
  • Mac Pro (Late 2013)

Latest Mac Os Operating System 2020

macOS 10.14 Mojave

Release date: September 24, 2018

Hardware Requirements: 2GB RAM and 18.5GB free space on disk


  • The main feature of Mojave is “Dark Mode”
  • FaceTime adds group feature which allows chatting with up to 32 people
  • News, Stocks, Voice Memos, and Home apps were ported from iOS to Mac.

How to install

If your Mac is eligible to update to Mojave, then the easiest way to install it is by enabling automatic updates. Downloading a standalone Mojave installer could be a little tricky.

List of Apple computers compatible with macOS Mojave

  • MacBook (Early 2015 or later)
  • MacBook Air (Mid 2012 or later)
  • MacBook Pro (Mid 2012 or later)
  • Mac mini (Late 2012 or later)
  • iMac (Late 2012 or later)
  • iMac Pro (All models)
  • Mac Pro (Late 2013 and 2010-2012 models with upgraded GPU)

macOS 10.13 High Sierra

Release date: September 25, 2017

Hardware Requirements: 2GB RAM and 14.3GB free space on disk


  • APFS (Apple File System) becomes the default file system in High Sierra. It’s a significant upgrade from the older HFS+ in terms of speed, size, and security
  • iCloud support of Messages which allows sync messages of the account across multiple devices
  • Mail app uses 35% less storage space due to optimizations

List of Apple computers compatible with macOS High Sierra

  • MacBook (Late 2009 or newer)
  • MacBook Pro (Mid 2010 or newer)
  • MacBook Air (Late 2010 or newer)
  • Mac mini (Mid 2010 or newer)
  • iMac (Late 2009 or newer)
  • Mac Pro (Mid 2010 or newer)

How to install

Here is a High Sierra download link.

macOS 10.12 Sierra

This is the first macOS version. Previous OS versions for Macs were called OS X (X stands for 10).

Release date: September 20, 2016

Hardware Requirements: 2GB RAM and 8GB free space on disk


  • Siri was introduced to Macs
  • Optimized storage with iCloud sync
  • Auto-lock feature allows unlocking MacBook with paired Apple Watch
  • APFS preview available
  • Disk Utility can manage RAID sets again
  • Significant security improvements

How to install

Here is a Sierra download link.

List of Apple computers compatible with macOS Sierra

  • MacBook (Late 2009 or newer)
  • MacBook Pro (Mid 2010 or newer)
  • MacBook Air (Late 2010 or newer)
  • Mac mini (Mid 2010 or newer)
  • iMac (Late 2009 or newer)
  • Mac Pro (Mid 2010 or newer)

OS X 10.11 El Capitan

Last OS X version.

Release date: September 30, 2015

Hardware Requirements: 2GB RAM and 8GB free space on disk


  • System Integrity Protection – a security feature that protects even when the root user executes the process
  • Performance improvements: open PDF files four times faster, Mail is twice faster, launching apps 40% faster
  • Notes app similar to the app in iOS

Macs compatible with OS X El Capitan

same as OS Mountain Lion.

How to install

Here is El Capitan download link.

OS X 10.10 Yosemite

Release date: October 16, 2014

Hardware Requirements: 2GB RAM and 8GB free space on disk

Macs compatible with OS X Yosemite

Same as OS Mountain Lion.


  • Major user design overhaul
  • Introduction of Handoff and Continuity features
  • Photos app replaced iPhoto and Aperture

How to install

Here is Yosemite download link.

OS X 10.9 Mavericks

First free Mac OS. Previous OS versions vary from $19.99 to $129.

Release date: October 22, 2013

Hardware Requirements: 2GB RAM and 8GB free space on disk


  • Compressed Memory feature automatically compresses inactive apps when approaching maximum memory capacity
  • Timer coalescing is a feature that reduces CPU usage by up to 72 percent
  • App Nap puts apps that are not currently visible to sleep

Macs compatible with OS X Mavericks

Same as OS Mountain Lion.

How to install

OS X Mavericks installer is not available on Apple Site. Follow instructions here to install Mavericks.

OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion

Must be purchased. Fixed many bugs introduced in OS X Lion.

Release date: July 25, 2012

System Requirements: 2GB RAM and 8GB free space on disk


  • New apps: Notification Center, Notes, Messages, Game Center
  • AirPlay mirroring allowed to mirror Mac screen to Apple TV
  • Application updates automatically install from the App Store

List of Apple computers compatible with OS X Mountain Lion

  • iMac (Mid-2007 or newer)
  • MacBook (Late 2008 Aluminum, or Early 2009 or newer)
  • MacBook Air (Late 2008 or newer)
  • MacBook Pro (Mid/Late 2007 or newer)
  • Mac mini (Early 2009 or newer)
  • Mac Pro (Early 2008 or newer)
  • Xserve (Early 2009)

How to install

Mountain Lion installer is not available on Apple Site. Follow instructions here to install OS X Mountain Lion.

List of older Mac OS Versions

Following Mac OS versions are still running on older Macs, but Apple does not support them anymore, and there is no point to upgrade (or downgrade) to them:

  • OS X 10.7 Lion
  • OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard
  • Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard
  • Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger
  • Mac OS X 10.3 Panther
  • Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar
  • Mac OS X 10.1 Puma
  • Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah
2254 words [ 41 Screenshots ] [ 27 Versions ] [ 1 Weblinks ] - Last update: 2021-10-06 Page created: 2004-04-03 [SB]

Mac System Software

Mac OS was named by the company Apple as 'Mac System Software' in the beginning, a specially designed operating system only for 68K first Motorola processors. With own Macintosh hardware, Mac OS takes up a special role in the world of desktop systems. The first version was 'System 1' and appeared bundled with the Mac in 1984. The classic desktop is designed as a single user operating system and almost completely hides the full path to files and directories. The graphic representation is reduced to the essence. Overall the interface is very easy to use and does not need the right mouse button for user interaction. Mac OS does not include a command line interface.
Starting with System 3.0, the used filesystem HFS was used officially, which does not different between uppercase and lowercase letters. System 5.0 was the first release to run several programs with the integrated MultiFinder at the same time. The operating system was programmed up to system 6.0 mostly in assembler and partially in Pascal and used a 24-bit addressing mode. Cooperative Multi-tasking could optionally be enabled in System 6. System 7.0 first supported 32-bit addressing. Thus allow the operating system can use more memory and more powerful programs. Since 1994 System 7.5 supported for the first time the PowerPC architecture and is optimized with the following Mac OS versions further on this architecture. With System software 7.6 the name was changed to Mac OS in January 1997.
The optimization of the operating system to the hardware has the disadvantage that the system software can not be installed on every Mac. Application compatibility to the Mac systems may also vary with each version.
2006 MacOS X was presented for the first time publicly on x86 hardware, Apple allows the use of Mac OS X only on specific intel-Macintosh systems. According to Steve Jobs Mac OS X have been developed since 2000 internally parallel for Intel and PowerPC processors. The version of Mac OS X 10.6.0 raised the optimization to Intel-based processors further, the new operating system is no longer available for PowerPC Macintosh or pure 32-bit intel processors. In return the user receives a pure 64-bit operating system optimized for performance on multiple processors. Even the GPU computing power itself can be used with specific applications.
The selection of software is focused on the creative industry and enables such as the professional graphic, audio and video editing. Office applications such as MacWrite, Microsoft Office, OpenOffice and 3D games are also available. The choice of browsers is large with iCab, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape, Opera and Mozilla Firefox. StuffIt is the standard software for file compression.

System 6 (Mac OS)

Mac system software 6 came onto the market in 1988. It requires 1 MB RAM and can address up to 8 MB. The file system can organize hard disks up to 2 GByte with 65,536 files. Optionally applications run with the multi Finder in cooperative multitasking. For word processing are programs such as WriteNow, MacWrite II, and Microsoft Word 4.0 available.

System 7 (Mac OS)

The system 7 was first available in May 1991. The new operating system needed 2 MB RAM, optionally it can be switched to 32-bit depending from the used hardware. Cooperative multitasking is now enabled by default, the addressable memory is no longer limited to 8 MB. In addition virtual memory can be enabled.
New is the direct support of networks with file exchange, AppleScript as scripting language and display of colors. Balloons provide help for the user to use the interface. With aliases are icon links to files possible, regardless of the storage location locally or from the network. The TrueType fonts are scalable to any size.
The System Software 7.5 appeared in 1994 and requires at least 4 MB RAM. It was running both on 68k-Macs and Power Macintosh. In September 1996, the update System 7.5.5 includes all available bug fixes, Open Transport 1.1.2, current Ethernet driver and support for storage drive volumes up to 4 GB. With release 7.6 the company Apple changed the name for the operating system from System Software to Mac OS in 1997. At the 31. January 1999 Apple gave the Mac system software 7.5.3 public as free download.
Mac OS 7.6 can be installed on every Mac compatible computer, which contains at least a 68030 processor and supports 32-bit addressing. The 24-bit addressing is no longer supported. Performance is improved in the area of virtual memory and memory management. QuickTime version 2.5 offers better image quality and benefits of multiple processors.
On systems with 68040 or PowerPC processors partitions can be used of up to 2 TByte, systems with 68030 processor remain limited to 4 GB. Check of the disk after a system crash requires now much less time.

Mac OS 8

Mac OS 8 by Apple appeared in July 1997. As minimum requirements are specified a 68040 or PowerPC processor, 32 MB RAM and 120 MB of free disk space. The CTRL key is used to display a specific context menu for different actions. Finder in version 8 is now multithreaded and does no longer breaks other applications during the copy of files. The starting time of the operating system and applications is been reduced. As standard the browser software Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 and Netscape Navigator 3.0 are included. Inside of a TCP/IP network can shared files and printers accessed.
With Mac OS 8.1 the filesystem HFS+ is included by default. Now informations are stored more efficiently on the file system and does less waste disk space in comparison of HFS. The limit of the partition size is depending on your hardware, the maximum size is now 2 TByte for all Quadra and PowerMac systems. The file system can handle up to 2 billion files with a current file size of up to 2 GB. PC Exchange 2.2 allows users the mount of DOS and Windows drives on your desktop. The supported file systems include FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, VFAT.
Mac OS 8.5 further optimized the stability and speed of the operating system, Sherlock is extended for full-text search in local files and Internet search wizard for the first time. Mac systems with 68k processors are no longer compatible with this version. The throughput in Ethernet networks has been increased, AppleScript is now up to 5 x faster than the previous version. The graphical display is accelerated by new QuickDraw routines. Copying files has become faster and increase the disk throughput. A tool for system maintaining detects and fixes errors on the file system automated. The 'Apple System Profiler' creates comprehensive reports about the used hardware and software.
Following applications are included in current version: Finder 8.5 QuickTime Pro 3, Open Transport 2, Internet Explorer 4.01, Outlook Express 4.01, Netscape Navigator 4.0.5, Mac OS Runtime for Java 2.0 and File Exchange 3.
Mac OS 8.6 requires 250 MB free disk space and 24 MB RAM. A new kernel is included which improves performance and added support for the PowerPC G4 processor. The ability of multitasking and multiprocessing has been optimized further and enhanced with new features.
UDF 1.5.2 allows reading and storing data to DVD-RAM and read of DVD-ROM media.

Mac OS 9

The operating system Mac OS 9 has been developed under the name Sonata and released to the 23. October 1999. The installation requires 32 MB RAM with virtual memory and a PowerPC 601 processor or higher. For models with G3 processor are at least 64 MB RAM recommended for optimal performance. The first G4 and iMac systems until summer 2000 are supported. The free disk storage should be 150 up to 400 MB depending on the installation type.
50 new features are added in comparison to the previous version. This includes support for multiple users with password and access management for files and settings. The login is available through authentication by voice. Files can be stored encrypted. The operating system can automatically update itself via the Internet. You can back up all personal passwords with a master password. The integrated search engine Sherlock 2 is extended with language and search templates. The first version 'Carbon' API is available for new applications.
The following applications are included in current version: Finder 9.0, Mac OS Runtime for Java 2.1.4, Apple data security 2.0 and Open Transport 2.5.

Mac OS X

Different technologies like the Mach Kernel, NEXTSTEP and tools from NetBSD and FreeBSD found influence in Mac OS X to merge the previous Apple technology with UNIX features. The operating system core Darwin is open source and can be used also on x86 computers standalone. Mac OS X works with preemptive multi-tasking and includes beside the new GUI Aqua the classic GUI from Mac OS 9.
Mac OS X 10.0 came out in March 2001. To install are 128 MB RAM (256 MB RAM starting from Mac OS X 10.3.9) and 1.5 GB hard disk space (3.0 GByte starting from Mac OS X 10.2) provided. Mac OS X 10.5 requires at least 512 MB RAM and 9 GByte of free disk space.
- 32-bit or 64-bit processing
- SMP with up to 32 CPUs

Latest Mac Os Operating System 2019

- needs a PowerPC G3, G4 or G5
- POSIX compatible
- HFS+ file system
Field of Application
- digital photography
- 2-D and 3-D animations
- video processing, streaming
- audio processing
- platform for DTP, web design
- office applications
Structure Information
- supports QuickTime/VR
- monolithic Kernel
- Read/Write FAT, FAT32, ISO9660, UDF
- well proven TCP/IP Stack
- graphical user interaction with the finder
- graphical representation by Quickdraw
- central password administration (Keychain)
Considerable performance and comfort improvements were carried out in version Mac OS X 10.1. The surface reacts quicker at user interaction, the system start was accelerated and the OpenGL performance increased noticeable.
Mac OS X 10.3 has now a GUI in metallic scheme and the optimized Finder. The use and access in heterogeneous networks was further simplified. Files can be provided with etiquettes, the compression format ZIP is now directly supported. 12 million MacOS X user were counted in October 2004.
According to Apple Mac OS X 10.4 brings more than 200 new features. Features are the fast, system-wide and index-based search function named Spotlight, the Dashboard for easy access to small programs (Widgets), the Automator for the simplified composition of Applescripts for the automation of tasks. The Web browser Safari in version 2.0 now contained RSS support, the QuickTime software was updated to version 7 with support for the H.264 video codec. Further novelty is the delivery at a DVD medium, an installation of CD-ROM is no longer possible.
First since the 10th January 2006 is MacOS X 10.4.4 next to the PowerPC version available for Intel based Macs. On the 6. June 2005 Steve jobs announced at the WWDC the switch to Intel processors. As further details became known that Apple had developed Mac OS X since 2000 internally also for the Intel platform.
Apple released the successor MacOS X 10.5, Leopard at the 26.10.2007. With more than 300 innovations MacOS offers the user an enhanced user interface with virtual desktops, a fast file preview and Dock with 3D effect. The Finder was revised, the expansion 'Boot Camp' for the installation of Windows on Intel-Macs is an official component now. As a file system ZFS is optionally available. For the surfing on the Internet the Apple Safari 3 Web browser is included. Backups can be made, managed and restored in a simple way with 'Time Machine'. Time Machine makes every hour the day automatically a file backup and every day a snapshot for the duration of a complete month. Lost files are recovered easily over the display of a dynamic time line of those snapshot. The security of the operating system and applications is improved by 11 enhancements. This are beside others the application-based firewall, signed applications, the use of ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization) and Sandboxing for applications.
Open Group certified MacOS X 10.5 according to the standard UNIX 03 in November 2007. MacOS X is the first free BSD derivative with such certificate to bear the name UNIX officially. The certification guarantees the use of UNIX standard implementations to porting UNIX applications easily.
The first update with bug fixes was released with Mac OS X 10.5.1 by Apple on November 15th, 2007. It contains general bug fixes for the operating system to improve stability, better compatibility and safety. Mac OS X 10.5.2 cames with 125 bug fixes and smaller optimizations on January 24th, 2008.
Mac OS X 10.6 is a Mac computer with Intel Core 2 Duo processor with at least 1 GB memory and 5 GB free space ahead. This operating system no longer exists as PowerPC execution. Apple placed the focus development on performance and stability. It supports up to 16 TByte memory, it is optimized for multi core processors, and is a pure 64-bit operating system. With the technology OpenCL graphics processor can speed up in specific applications calculations.
Apple released macOS 10.12 as free update on 20th September 2016. The new operating system brings the personal assistant Siri to desktop computers. You can also Auto Unlock with your Apple Watch to unlock the computer automatically. The storage management has been optimized to e.g. free up local storage space and easily get rid of duplicate and obsolete files. The Universal Clipboard allows you to copy and paste images, video, and text between all supported devices. Beside of the HFS+ file system you can use the new file system Apple File System (APFS) as a developer preview on data volumes only. Highlights of APFS are e.g. native encryption, optimization for Flash/SSD storage and the Apple software ecosystem. It is planned that APFS will be the default file system for all Apple products in 2017.

Mac OS 1.0 DesktopMac OS 2.0 DesktopMac OS 3.0 DesktopSystem 6, Macintosh Finder
System 6, system directorySystem 6, system controlSystem 6, find fileSystem 6, Apple menu and scrap book
System 7.5.3, DesktopSystem 7.5.3, Apple menu with control panelSystem 7.5.3, system directory and infoSystem 7.5.3, file menu and system directory
System 7.5.3, help with text balloonsSystem 7.5.3, find fileMac OS 7.6.1, system is startingMac OS 7.6.1, desktop and system directory
Mac OS 9, system is startingMac OS 9, desktop and versionMac OS 9, iCab internet browserMac OS 9, Apple menu with system directory
Mac OS 9, control panelMac OS 9, system partitionMac OS 9, Sherlock 2Mac OS 9, context menu and alias
Desktop of Mac OS 8.1Desktop of Mac OS 10Mac OS 10.3 - Boot logoMac OS 10.3 - Installation screen
Language selectionMac OS X installerStorage drive for installationInstallation type for custom install
Boot screen of Mac OS XDesktop with user directoryAbout this macSystem Preferences
Safari Internet BrowserSoftware UpdateApplicationsUnix bash terminal
Internet Explorer 5.2 for Mac


1984 - System 0.85, 216 kbyte in size, first time with MFS file system
1985 - System 2.0, updates and improvements like the Finder and menu
1986 - System 3.0, contains optimizations, first time with HFS file system
1987 - System 4.0, bug fixes
1987 - System 4.1, improved Finder (supports HDD >32 mbyte)
1988 - System 6, 32-bit color, Quickdraw support, serial port driver support, Truetype fonts
1990 - System 7, 32-bit memory adressing on supported hardware, first time with virtual memory, updated GUI
1994 - System 7.5
1997 - Mac OS 7.6
1997 - Mac OS 8.0
1998 - Mac OS 8.1, 32-Bit, file system HFS+, only limited memory protection, USB and Firewire on supported hardware
1998 - Mac OS 8.5.1, Sherlock search files on hard disks and on the internet, intranet updates
1999 - Mac OS 8.6, multi-processor capable
1999 - Mac OS 9 (sonata), Sherlock 2 can handle files with size up to 2 tbyte, user profiles (multiple users)
2001 - Mac OS 9.1
1999 - Mac OS X Server, Mach- Kernel 2.5 (Unix-derivated microkernel) better performance and stability
1999 March - Mac OS X Server 1.0
2000 - Mac OS X Server 1.2.3
2001 March - Mac OS X 10.0 (Cheetah)
2001 Sept. - Mac OS X 10.1 (Puma), improved performance, improved GUI
2002 Aug. - Mac OS X 10.2 (Jaguar), new applications and technology
2003 Oct. - Mac OS X 10.3 (Panther), new features for improved productivity and security; Mac OS X Server 10.3
2005 April - Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger), new technology; Mac OS X Server 10.4
2006 Jan. - Mac OS X 10.4.4, first also available vor intel based syystems
2007 Oct. - Mac OS X 10.5 (Leopard)
2009 Sept. - Mac OS X 10.6 (Snow Leopard), only for x86-64 Bit Intel dualcore
2016 Sept. - macOS 10.12 (Sierra) available, introducing Apple File System (APFS)

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